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Posts Tagged ‘fruit’

Aggravation in my Small Kitchen Garden?


An anonymous visitor to Your Small Kitchen Garden raised concerns about Summerstone Nursery. In my last post (Pear Trees for my Small Kitchen Garden), I explained that I chose Summerstone from among more than a dozen web sites, and I explained my selection process. Admittedly, in researching these nurseries I made a classic blunder: I failed to research what customers of the businesses had to say about them.

I’m flabbergasted at the oversight as I’ve been shopping on line since the 1990s and I approach I thought I approached all information on the internet with a kind of “Oh, Yeah?” attitude. Not this time.

Problems with Summerstone?

Will I be one of the disgruntled few, or will I be happy with the vendor from whom I ordered pear trees? I may not be able to answer until next summer (and I don’t expect homegrown fruit for three or four years). In the meantime, I have visions of large, beautiful pears that are just out of reach.

So, a day late and about $36 short, I’ve read some consumer reviews of Summerstone Nurseries. The reviews aren’t all rosy (they’re also not all bad). I probably wouldn’t have bought from Summerstone had I read the reviews first… but I’m not sure. I also did belated due diligence on Willis Orchards, Raintree Nursery, and Nature Hills—the other on-line suppliers I mentioned in my last post. It would be wrong to say that any impress… though, perhaps, Raintree has the best ratio of positive to negative reviews… Summerstone’s ratio is the worst.

I’m not Thrilled…

When reading reviews, I always remind myself: If things go OK, I don’t go out of my way to tell the world about it. I expect things to go OK, so why bother reporting OK to a consumer watch organization? Businesses such as eBay make customer and seller reviews central to the basic sales strategy: you leave good review, I leave good review, we’re good eBay citizens… but a customer can really mess up a seller’s business by leaving a bad review. The dynamics encourage everyone to leave reviews whether good or bad.

For sales web sites, you can predict the behavior of customers: when things go well, they move on. When things go poorly, they complain. So, I’m sure you see mostly negative reviews of vendors who don’t participate in shopping communities or web 2.0 networking—even when the vast majority of shopping experiences with the vendors are neutral or positive.

Do I Feel Better Now?

Rationalization complete, I’m still bothered by the negative reviews of Summerstone Nurseries. It occurs to me that if left to their own devices, people are more likely to complain than to compliment (or simply move on), then a compliment on an independent consumer watchdog web site must carry substantially more weight than does a negative review. Sigh!

Well, I’m an optimist and I’m very patient. So, while I’m still not recommending a particular on-line nursery, I’m not denouncing any either. I’ll stay the course, and continue to report as the pear tree saga unfolds.

I feel I’ve learned what I thought I already knew: get your hair cut where the barber goes for a haircut; buy donuts where cops buy donuts; eat at the crowded restaurants… You know: seek other people’s recommendations before making a purchase.

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Pear Trees for my Small Kitchen Garden

This ancient pear tree stands about 40 feet tall. It’s loaded with pears, but all are way out of reach.

Many posts ago, I advocated that autumn is the time of year to plant fruit in your small kitchen garden. I laid out my plan to acquire and plant a pear tree this fall, and to share the process with readers of this blog. Things haven’t progressed as quickly as I’d expected, but I want to make it clear: I’m making progress.

Nothing Available Locally

I explained in two earlier posts (post 1, post 2) that I simply can’t find pear trees in local gardening stores and nurseries at this time of year. So, I’ve been prowling on-line for a nursery that suits me, and that carries a tree I want to own. To keep everything above board, here is the complete agenda for my search:

I’ve been seeking…

  • …a reasonable variety of trees
  • …a rock-bottom price
  • …an informative site with (good) enough instructions for gardeners of zero skill
  • …a nursery that will deliver my trees in autumn so I can get them planted
  • …a web site with an affiliate program in hopes I might establish a long-term relationship with them and make a little coin from this web site

I haven’t yet found what I’ve been seeking.

A Very Brief Overview of Nurseries

I found many nurseries that have on-line presences. In fact, one found my blog before I found them and they left a comment about an earlier post. That site also has an affiliate program… but here’s the problem: Their price for a single pear tree was staggering (to me). If I wait until spring, I can get a tree locally for half their price—and I won’t have to pay shipping.

Many other on-line nurseries offer young, bare-root pear trees for under $10 per tree (bare-root means there’s no soil around the roots of the tree when they ship it). One nursery even offered trees at various stages of development; the older the tree, the more you pay for it. Here are links to the most compelling of the nurseries I visited… though there were at least a dozen others:


My On-Line Nursery

I settled on Summerstone Nursery for several reasons:

  • They are used to shipping trees for planting in autumn.
  • They were amazingly responsive to emails—and were patient when I bollixed my order and asked to make changes.
  • Their prices didn’t cause indigestion
  • They offer a good variety of pear (and other) trees


Pollination is important to producing the best possible fruit. Many trees pollinate themselves so a single tree is enough to get a decent fruit crop. Some trees produce fruit wether or not pollination occurs, but the unpollinated fruits are inferior to the pollinated ones. So, it’s often necessary to plant two or more trees to get good fruit from any one tree. With pears, nearly every varity can pollinate nearly every other variety… but having two trees of the same variety is no better than having one (unless it’s a self-pollinator). Click this link to open an Excel spreadsheet showing which varieties of pears can pollinate each other: www.flowerworld.usa

But Summerstone isn’t a great site for inexperienced gardeners. There’s very little useful information about their trees on the web site. For example, the instructions for planting are terse and don’t differentiate between planting in the spring and planting in the fall. As well, the site identifies specific trees as pollinators for other trees but doesn’t explain that nearly every variety of pear tree can pollinate nearly every other variety (see the box for more about pear pollinators). Also, descriptions of the pear varieties don’t always reveal how tall and broad the trees might become—or which hardiness zones they’re best suited to.

The photo of cherries is from the Summerstone Nursery web site… I ordered a cherry tree along with the two new pear trees.

For my own needs, I visited several nursery web sites and jumped among them to gather the information I wanted before making a purchasing decision. It would have been great to find one on-line nursery that provided all the features I wanted, but technology being what it is, I was still able to muddle through.

My Small Kitchen Garden Tree Order

I was going to plant just one pear tree… and it was going to be Bartlett because Bartlett is a self-pollinating variety; you need only one. But a crazy thing happened (don’t you know): I got really pumped about Moonglow pears and wanted to try them. Moonglow needs a pollinator—a non-Moonglow variety. So, I ordered one of each (Moonglow and Bartlett). Oh, and a sour cherry tree… because I love sour cherry pies and preserves. For good measure, I threw in two pecan trees—I may be a little too far north to keep pecans happy, or I may not be… but that’s a discussion for another post.

I may not see my new trees until November. I’ll keep you apprised.

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Fruit Tree Neglect in a Small Kitchen Garden

While this completely neglected apple looks scrumptious in the tree, there is a near 100% certainty that it’s home to a grub or a worm or a burrowing insect.

I’ve explained in past posts (about fruit trees) that growing fruit trees as a part of your small kitchen garden strategy adds a boatload of work to an otherwise potentially low-impact activity. Especially with apples, if you don’t follow a regular maintenance schedule, your fruit trees won’t reward you well.

Even as I’ve embarked on the simple mission of planting a new pear tree in my own home kitchen garden this year, I’m ruing the near total neglect I gave my fruit trees through the growing season.

Tree Things I Didn’t Do

Dormant Oil—This is a bigger confession than I care to make: I have never completed all the annual fruit tree maintenance jobs recommended by expert agriculturalists. One that has always eluded me is supposed to happen in mid-to-late winter: spraying the tree with dormant oil. Dormant oil kills several types of bugs that can weaken a fruit tree—and that may attach themselves and hold on through the winter.

As in every year I’ve had fruit trees, I didn’t apply dormant oil this year.

Pruning—In very late winter, it’s important to prune a fruit tree. You remove dead wood, take out branches that cross each other (to reduce rubbing that may damage the bark), open up the tree’s crown so sunlight can make it to the tree’s lower branches, do some shaping to make the fruit-bearing branches more accessible, and cut back limbs to promote new growth.

Traditionally, I’ve pruned my trees properly, and I’ve even done a lot of grafting. I didn’t do any pruning or grafting this year.

Mulch & Fertilizer—It’s helpful to mulch around a tree that grows out of your lawn. Mulching retains moisture, guards the soil from insects and burrowing animals, and keeps your lawnmower away from the tree’s trunk. Mulch helps retain moisture, cuts down on plants that compete for the moisture, and provides shallow roots with some insulation against rapid freezing and sudden extreme swings in temperature. Fertilizer is a quick pick-me up, providing nourishment at crucial developmental points during the year.

I’ve never been good about mulching, though my wife sometimes does the job. I do usually fertilize… but I neither mulched nor fertilized my fruit trees this year.

Culling—Especially with peach trees, and with apple trees to a lesser extent, a tree’s tendency to be prolific can result in production of small fruits. Peach tree branches may be lined with blossoms, and if every one of them grows into a peach, they’ll be small peaches indeed. So, shortly after the petals drop off and you can clearly identify baby peaches, it’s a good idea to pick off and discard a lot of the babies. Usually a two-step process, you first pick off fruits from clusters leaving just a single fruit where there was a cluster. A week or two later, you pick off the smaller fruits, leaving one every eight or nine inches along each branch.

This is typical of an apple that has had no help in fending off insect marauders. I’d have no desire to bite into this one, and paring it for use in pie or apple sauce would be only slightly less appetizing.

Certain insecticides cull fruits when the fruits are small. For example, applying Sevin brand insecticide to an apple tree right after the petals fall will usually cause some fruits to fall… and using a higher concentration of Sevin culls a greater number of fruits.

I didn’t do any culling this season.

Pest-prevention—Pears, peaches, and plums grow surprisingly “clean” in central Pennsylvania even if you do nothing to fight off insects. Apples are another story. If I don’t treat my apple trees with some type of bug spray repeatedly, nearly every apple I harvest will hold hidden biological treasures. Chemical insecticides require application immediately after petals fall, and again every ten to fourteen days until harvest. Admittedly, I’ve not tried organic treatments to protect my apples… if you’ve had success with any, please leave a comment that tells about frequency of application and efficacy of the product.

This season, I applied insecticide right after petal-fall, and, perhaps, two weeks later. After that, my apples became insect incubators.

Woodchucks, skunks, porcupines, raccoons, and, perhaps, smaller rodents, suplement their diets with my rotting apples. There is also a healthy bee and wasp population eating the sweet fruit. The alcohol fumes coming off the apples might draw attention from prohibitionists.

Harvest—Of course, if you grow fruit but never harvest it, you don’t actually have fruit. Peaches provide a window of as long as a month during which you can pick some, let them ripen indoors, pick some more, and so on (picking a peach speeds it to ripen—but it should already look ripe before you pick it). Then, all at once, the ones still on the trees soften, shrivel, and drop off. Pears seem to hold on for several months, but you should harvest pears the moment any full-sized one drops off on its own account. You can start picking apples when they first look ripe, and continue picking right up until leaves are falling. The apples will start to jump out of the trees on their own, so it can become a daily chore to pick up fallen apples before rodents chew on them, and then to pick apples off the trees so you get some that aren’t bruised by the fall.

Yes, I’ve harvested apples this year, but my motivation is very low. Most of my apples are fermenting in my lawn while providing nutrition to insects and rodents. The ones I’ve gotten to before the predators all have been colonized by boring insects—even apples I’ve picked from the trees.

There’s Always Next Year

When the season started, I had been excited about mild weather and a bumper crop of apple blossoms. A few awkwardly-timed rain storms (which interfere with insecticide treatments), and heavy focus on non-gardening-related activities made me miss insecticide application for about six weeks. At that point, it was pointless to jump back in and hope for good results; I could see most fruits were already badly formed.

It sometimes takes a year like this to get me motivated for the next five years: With last year’s bumper crop of well-cared-for apples, I canned some nine gallons of apple sauce. I enjoyed canning two gallons of it, and canning the rest felt like a forced march.

When it comes time to prune and graft in March, I’ll remember the overwhelming smell of fermentation and the sticky gushiness under the apple trees during my autumn lawn mowing. It’ll be enough to get me out to work on my fruit trees.

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How to Make a Fruit Tree for a Small Kitchen Garden

I’m on a mission to plant a pear tree this fall in my small kitchen garden. In the past week, I’ve visited or contacted garden stores and nurseries within a half hour drive of where I live in central Pennsylvania—hardiness zone 5b. I’m ready now to concede that the local culture simply doesn’t believe in fall planting of perennials. That’s too bad for two reasons:

  1. Planting in the fall has many advantages (read about them here)
  2. I’m going to have to mail order my pear tree
A young fruit tree has a small section of root stock, grafted with a scion having several leaf buds and a terminal bud. Any of the leaf buds could develop into a branch, but if the terminal bud survives, in two or three years you can prune off the lower branches and promote branching higher up the tree’s turnk.

What I’d Look for at a Nursery

As I explained in my last post (click here to read it): Were I there to choose the tree in person, it would have a straight trunk running vertically up to a healthy leader—with, perhaps, a bump where the leader was grafted onto root stock. I would not buy a young tree whose main trunk made an abrupt change in direction, or had one dominant branch that was obviously thicker and reached higher than the main leader. I’d also be cautious of the distribution of branches.

Sometimes, it seems nursery operators prize low branches. Young trees often come with branches starting within a foot of the ground which is not a problem unless the tree’s main trunk makes an awkward diversion from vertical. When a tree has a vertical leader, within a few seasons, you can prune away the very low branches, and encourage growth on the higher ones.

However, when a young tree’s leader is at the end of a horizontal branch nearly as thick as the main trunk, it may take many years of aggressive pruning to train a new vertical leader that’s even vaguely in line with the trunk. If you’re growing a very small tree, then low branches make sense. But I want to be able to duck under my tree’s branches, so it won’t do to buy one that a nursery assembled with one or more main branches three feet off the ground.

It’s about Assembly at the Nursery

When you’re shopping for fruit trees, chances are you’re looking at chimeras. A chimera is an organism assembled from parts of several organisms. Especially in the cases of dwarf fruit trees, but often with larger trees as well, a nursery worker, through a craft called grafting, has combined two or more types of trees to make a single tree. The worker cuts a scion (a thin branch with several leaf buds and a leader at its tip), from a standard variety of fruit tree—say, a Bartlett pear. The worker also roots a variety of pear tree that has specific desirable characteristics, but that may produce unappealing fruit. The worker preserves the roots and cuts off most of the above-ground leader, replacing it with the Bartlett pear scion.

Over the course of a few months, the select root stock melds with the scion, and new wood and bark grow together to make a viable tree. The nursery worker makes sure no leaf buds survive on the root stock, so the only viable growth above ground is the good-eating variety of fruit.

Why the Grafting?

In grafting, the nursery worker is creating a tree with the best possible combination of features. Often, a desirable fruit’s roots are vulnerable to diseases, but the rest of the plant is hardy. It makes sense, then, to graft the desirable fruit onto a different root that won’t succumb to disease.

Grafting Against Disease and Pests

All the great wines from Europe come from the juice of vitis vinifera grapes. These grapes didn’t exist in the Americas until brought here by Europeans. American grapes, vitis americana, were not acceptable substitutes for vinifera grapes.

Crisis befell the European wine industry in the late 1800s when an insect called phylloxera arrived in Europe on vitis americana grape plants. European grapes were vulnerable to phylloxera, and it spread rapidly, nearly wiping out the vineyards throughout Europe. To save the wine industry, growers grafted vitis vinifera scions onto vitis americana root stock, and now virtually all wine grapes in Europe come from these chimera plants.

Your fruit trees may have been assembled similarly to provide hardy roots for otherwise less-hardy (but more delicious) fruit varieties.

To make dwarf fruit trees, a nursery worker selects a “dwarfing root stock,” and grafts a desirable fruit onto it. The dwarfing stock simply passes water and nutrients to the rest of the plant more slowly than the plant would like… acting, in effect, like a bonsai tree master who cuts roots off of plants so they’ll grow up small though proportioned just like normally-grown trees.

Grafting can result in trees with undesirable shapes—especially when the nursery grafts two or more scions onto a single root stock (this is advantageous for fruits that require cross-pollination and is also necessary if you want two or more varieties of fruit from a single plant). Only one scion can be the tree’s leader… others must be branches—and when you graft a branch onto a three-foot tree, you have a tree that wants to be in your way when you do yard work.

What’s my Next Step?

I want to order my new pear tree soon so I can add it to my small kitchen garden in October. I’ll browse on-line nurseries, make a list, and share it with you in an upcoming post. When I select a nursery, I’ll explain why. I’ll also order a tree and explain my thinking about it.


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Choose a Fruit Tree for Your Small Kitchen Garden

With my last post, Your Small Kitchen Garden started a mission to plant a pear tree this fall. Yesterday, when I made a grocery run, I stopped at a gardening store and was able to establish that Lewisburg, PA subscribes to the culture of “plant perennials in the spring;” there will be no pear trees—or any other fruit trees available until March.

This flies in the face of my philosophy (shared by many gardeners): planting in autumn has distinct advantages. The folks at the garden store were very helpful, offering up the name and location of the nursery from which they purchase trees, but by the time I drive there and back, I’ll have spent at least $25 for gasoline.

So, today I have no tree to plant, but I’m making phone calls to local garden stores and nurseries. Why all this hassle rather than click over to an on-line nursery?

Buy Fruit Trees Locally

I choose to buy locally whenever I can for the age-old reason: it supports the local business-owners. In small-town anywhere, local businesses need the support. But when it comes to planting fruit trees, I want as much control over my selection as possible.

When I order a plant on-line, I trust the seller will package up something healthy that is likely to survive if I treat it well. What I can’t be sure of is whether I’m going to like the shape of the tree they send.

This peach tree came from the nursery with a vertical trunk and a near-horizontal extension. The entire crown was (and still is) at the end of the horizontal extension. It’ll be four or five more seasons of pruning to correct the idiotic shape.

Shape Matters

The shape of a tree matters to me when I’m working around it. For example, when I’m mowing the lawn, I don’t want to bend over to mow closely to a tree. I also don’t want tree branches so low that the only way to mow under them is to stand away from the tree, and repeatedly shove the mower under, pull it back, and shove it under.

When a fruit tree has shoulder-level branches in the spring, those same branches are likely to hang down to knee- or ankle-level when laden with fruit. Mowing around them then can damage the fruit, knock fruit off the tree, and even break the already-stressed branches.

So, my ideal tree shape is a little odd: a branch-free trunk up to about five-and-a-half feet, and then a kind of flat disk of branches radiating around the trunk. In other words, I’d like to have mushroom-shaped fruit trees (I still have to duck under the branches, but I don’t have to bend low).

Truly Dwarf Trees

Were I planting a particularly small dwarf-variety of tree, I’d put far less emphasis on the tree’s shape. I would simply maintain a large circle of mulch around a tree whose crown diameter was six to ten feet. Then the first branch could start six inches up the tree’s trunk and I’d be happy.

But, I’m not planting a dwarf pear tree if I can avoid it. So, I want a tree I can prune into a shape that makes me happy. Were I there to choose the tree in person, it would have a straight trunk running vertically up to a healthy leader—with, perhaps, a bump where the leader was grafted onto root stock. If I end up buying through mail-order there’s no guarantee I’ll get a tree shaped like this.

Grafted? Root Stock? What?

Details about how your fruit tree is assembled are only slightly important to your success in growing it. But, it never hurts to understand what the store owners are telling you when they throw industry jargon your way. So, in my next post I’ll explain how the nursery operators assemble fruit trees, and how that can result in odd shapes, dwarfs, unwanted growth, and unfortunate tree failure.

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It’s Fall! Are You Ready to Plant Fruit?

Some weeks ago, I admonished visitors to Your Small Kitchen Garden blog to think about planting fruit in the fall. It’s fall. So, plant fruit!

In earlier posts, I provided encouragement about planting strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, grapes, pears, peaches, apples, cherries, and plums: Plant Fruit. Let’s talk a bit more about pears, peaches, apples, cherries, and plums.

Before you Buy

I originally posted about fruit to help people decide whether they want to deal with the hassles of fruit-growing. Most of the continental United States (those in hardiness zone 5) is at the critical decision point: plant now, or miss out until spring. I argued in my earlier posts that now is better…

But before you rush off to the garden store (or click over to an on-line store), answer some questions:

Choose a Spot in Your Small Kitchen Garden

If a tree is going into the soil in your yard, evaluate the location. Will your fruit tree get at least six hours of direct sunlight every day? Look at nearby trees, if there are any. The five-foot tall spruce hedge on your neighbor’s property may not be a problem today, but in five years, it could completely shade out part of your yard.

If the crown of the tree you choose will be 30 feet across at maturity, plant it at least 15 feet from the nearest obstruction.


Measure for Size

The crown of a dwarf variety of fruit tree may extend only 4 feet around the tree’s trunk (perhaps, 8 feet in diameter). The crown of another dwarf variety may extend 15 feet around the trunk (30 feet in diameter). It’s pointless to choose a variety of fruit tree without knowing how much space you have for it, so measure the space you’ve chosen.

With aggressive pruning, you can confine many varieties of fruit trees to smaller spaces than they’d choose for themselves, but this must be a work of love: pruning is a late-winter activity that you ought to do annually. If you miss a year or two, you might regret having planted a large variety of tree in a confined space (just saying).

Evaluate the Drainage

It’s sad if the first choice location for a fruit tree in your small kitchen garden is in a depression, or in a level spot at the bottom of a hill. In a very dry year, you’ll be happy to have water accumulate around your tree during rare rain storms. However, in wet years, a tree planted on low ground can suffer from having its roots submerged in water for days or weeks at a time.

Dave Wilson Nursery has a nice web page about how to plant a tree (Dave Wilson Nursery). They suggest a test you can use to determine whether your soil drains properly for a tree: Dig a hole about 1 foot deep and fill it with water. Let it drain, then fill it again. If it takes longer than 3 or 4 hours to drain on the 1st or 2nd filling, you have problems! They also suggest if you really want to plant in a place with poor drainage, that you build a raised bed and go right ahead.

In Ground, or Above Ground?

This photo of trees planted in a raised bed is from the Dave Wilson Nursery web site.

Trees are amazingly adaptable and will try to make a go whatever the soil conditions you subject them to. However, if your yard sits on rocks, clay, or both, you need to make adjustments; it’s pointless to start your fruit trees where they’ll need to struggle for water and nutrition.

If you can dig in the soil, you can amend it with a mix of high-quality topsoil and humus. If you can’t dig in your soil, or you’d rather not, then consider using a container or building a deep raised bed for the tree. Again, for further thoughts on raised beds (and a lot of other useful information about planting trees), check out the Dave Wilson Nursery web site.

When You Decide to Dig

Chances are, you’ve already heard this: Call a local authority before you dig. Electric, telephone, and TV cable wires all might run through your yard… as well as water and sewer lines. Oh, and if you’re rural enough, you probably have a large septic field in the yard—maybe two of them: an active one and a spent one.

Don’t plant fruit trees on an active septic field. This isn’t a rule… some trees will prefer the septic environment, and it might take years for their roots to plug up the field’s drainage system. But why take chances? If you have a retired septic field in your yard, on the other hand, it might be the perfect space for a new orchard.

In any case, make certain you know how deep you can dig safely before you fall in love with a location for your fruit tree. When you call about the services, ask whether, and how deep you can dig. They may send someone to mark the paths of underground cables or pipes, so call immediately if you’re going to plant soon.

My pear tree has a crack running from its first branch down to the ground; it’s time to plant a replacement.

A final thought about planting over underground wires and pipes: Planting over them isn’t so much a problem as is the potential long-term impact on the health of your tree. If a service company needs to excavate to make repairs six or seven years from now, your fruit tree may not survive the ordeal. If planting over services is your only option in your limited space, opt for a large container and a very dwarf variety of fruit tree… you’ll be able to move the tree the next time a utility company digs up your yard to fix something.

Are You Ready to Plant Fruit?

If you’re building a raised bed, best to do so before you have a fruit tree on-hand… after it’s built, you’ll need to fill it with soil, and that might mean scheduling a delivery by a landscaping supply store. If you’re going to dig a hole, you’re probably safe having the tree on-hand before you start—though, again: if you need to upgrade your soil, make sure you have that finished before you adopt a tree and take it home.

I’m going to plant a new pear tree in my yard this fall. The one that came with the house has rotted at least halfway through near its base, and I doubt it’ll be standing two or three years from now. I’ll share the procedure with you as it unfolds. I can’t guarantee the timing of posts on the topic because I haven’t been to the local nurseries yet, and I may need to order on-line. Believe it or not, some on-line suppliers aren’t yet shipping fruit trees for fall planting.

Some links to more information about fruit trees:

  • Landscaping In Small Places And Planting Fruit Trees – Almost every month we find that we are being bombarded by new diet or exercise plans created specially to tempt us change the way we lead our lives. It is true that we all should really closely examine our current behaviour with a view …

  • Shapes For Fruit Trees: Winning Gardening Guide – Through the use of pruning techniques, it is possible to shape your tree to a particular style. There are seven main tree shapes that all have their own advantages for particular situations. During the growth of the tree, simply cut off …

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